The state of fluid accumulation in the brain is called “Hydrocephalus“. Pressure increases as more fluid accumulate in the brain, which can cause brain damage. This usually happens when fluid in the brain is not absorbed; the fluid gets stuck or starts to form in an excessive amount. Apart from this, Apart from this, due to head injury, brain haemorrhage or infection, brain tissue gets damaged, and fluid starts to fill in the brain. Symptoms include headache, blurred vision, difficulty walking, epileptic seizures, fever, irritability and excessive sleepiness.
To test this condition, doctors may perform some types of imaging tests, including CT scan, MRI or ultrasound scan. With the help of these imaging tests, very clear pictures of the brain are available, so that the hydrocephalus can be tested well.
Accumulation of Fluid in the brain can be treated in many different ways. In most cases, hydrocephalus is treated by operation. If hydrocephalus left untreated, this condition could be fatal for a lifetime. Let’s know about hydrocephalus condition like it’s the cause, symptoms, treatment, little about its history, and 20 best Government and Private hospitals in India for treatment of Hydrocephalus in detail.
- What is Hydrocephalus or Jalshirsh?
- What Causes Hydrocephalus?
- Signs And Symptoms of Hydrocephalus
- Some History About Hydrocephalus
- Types of Hydrocephalus
- Diagnosis of Hydrocephalus
- Hydrocephalus Treatment
- Prevention of Hydrocephalus
- Complications And Risks of Hydrocephalus
- Treatment Cost of Hydrocephalus in India
- Best Government Hospitals For Hydrocephalus Treatment
- Best Private Hospitals For Hydrocephalus Treatment
This is a brain condition in which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gets trapped in the brain and cannot exit. The cerebrospinal fluid is a colourless liquid like water, which provides a cushion to the spinal cord and brain. The pressure in the skull increases as the brain becomes more fluid. Its name is derived from the Greek words yopo (ὑδρο) – (hydro) “water” and cephalous (κέφαλος) – “head”.
An imbalance of cerebrospinal fluid causes the disease. In this disease, the balance between the amount of cerebrospinal fluid produced and the amount absorbed in the bloodstream is disturbed.
A layer makes the cerebrospinal fluid of tissue inside the brain. It flows into space between the two channels, connecting them. Finally, this fluid reaches around the brain and spinal cord. The cerebrospinal fluid is mainly absorbed by the blood cells near the brain.
The amount of cerebrospinal fluid is usually significantly increased for the following reasons:
- Not appropriately absorbed: It is a physical condition in which blood cells stop absorbing cerebrospinal fluid. This condition is often associated with swelling and redness etc. caused by some disease or injury etc. in the brain tissue.
- The cerebrospinal fluid begins to accumulate abnormally due to any obstruction in the normal flow of fluid.
- More Formation of Fluid: This condition occurs in very few cases, in which the pace of formation increases compared to when the cerebrospinal is absorbed.
In some cases, the hydrocephalus develops before the baby is born. This results in the following conditions:
- Certain types of infections that occur during pregnancy, such as Rubella
- A kind of birth defect in which the spinal columns are not close to each other
- A type of genetic abnormality
Symptoms of fluid accumulation in the brain may include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Inability to keep the body stable (instability)
- Difficulty in focusing eyes
- Leg weakness
- Suddenly fall
- Drag feet
- frequent urination
- Bladder muscle problems
- Excessive sleep
- Impairment of body movements
- Impaired ability to think, understand and remember
- Get stuck suddenly while walking
Symptoms of hydrocephalus in infants and children:
- Abnormally large body size
- Eyes bent down
- Excessive sleep
- Become irritable
- Forehead bulge
- Bulging veins of the skull
- Skull fracture
- Having visual problems
References to aqueducts can be found in ancient Egyptian medical literature from 2500 to 500 BC. The hydrocephalus was more clearly described by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates in the fourth century BCE. At the same time, a more accurate description was given later in the second century CE by the Roman physician Galen.
The first clinical description and surgical procedure for hydrocephalus came into existence in Al-Tasarif (1000 AD) by Arab surgeon Abu al-Qasim al-Zahavi, which has clearly described the extraction of superficial intercostal fluid in children with hydrocephalus. He has described it in his chapter on neuropsychiatric diseases, and he has described it as occurring due to mechanical compression while describing the infertile hydrocephalus.
In the 20th century, this continued to be a distressing condition until sidewalks, and other neurological treatments developed. It is a less well-known medical condition. Comparatively, little research has been done to develop the treatment of hydrocephalus, and to date, there is no specific cure for this condition.
There are mainly three types:
- Congenital Hydrocephalus: When the problem of fluid in the brain occurs from birth, that condition is called Congenital Hydrocephalus. Its symptoms usually start from childhood.
- Acquired Hydrocephalus: The hydrocephalus that develops after birth is called acquired hydrocephalus. It can occur at any age, which is mainly due to head injury, stroke, tumour, meningitis or haemorrhage, etc.
- Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: The cause of this type of hydrocephalus is not known yet. This can happen even if there is no loss of any change in the reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid. It usually occurs in older people.
The hydrocephalus test can be done based on taking previous information related to the patient’s health, identifying the patient’s symptoms and other medical examination results.
If you think that your child has hydrocephalus, the doctor will do a physical examination of your child and check for signs and symptoms. In children, doctors mainly check for symptoms like sunken eyes, bulging forehead and a head size larger than usual.
Doctors perform the test only by selecting the appropriate test according to the age, symptoms and health condition of the patient. Tests chosen by your doctor may include:
- Imaging test: These tests include MRI scans, CT scans, and ultrasound scans, etc. All these tests help to find out the increased size of the brain.
- Ultrasound: Usually, ultrasound of the mother is done between 15 and 35 weeks of pregnancy, with the help of which the problem of hydrocephalus is detected in the unborn child.
Some other tests that are usually done like:
- Eye test, eye test to check the eyesight and to find out the swelling behind the eyes, etc.
- Lumbar puncture test, this test is used to examine the cerebrospinal fluid and find its pressure.
- Brain scans with the help of radioisotopes
- Skull X-ray
This situation can be critical if the fluid accumulation in the brain is left untreated. With the help of treatment, the brain damage that has already taken place before treatment can be started. The prevention from further brain damage is the main goal in hydrocephalus treatment. In this treatment, the cerebrospinal fluid flow is mainly normalized.
If hydrocephalus is also associated with infection, then antibiotics are given in this condition. If the hydrocephalus problem is not cured even after treating the infection, in this case, the patient may need to be operated.
Doctor operations are often performed with the help of one of the following surgical procedures:
- Shunt Log – This is the most common type of cures for hydrocephalus, in which a device called a shunt is used. The shunt is a flexible tube that is placed in the ventricular system of the brain. Which converts the flow of cerebrospinal fluid to other parts of the body. By applying a shunt or tube to the skull, the cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the head and transported to a part that can absorb it. The shunt has a valve that normalizes the flow of cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles.
- Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) – This is an elective procedure performed at the site of shunt surgery, called ETV or endoscopic third ventriculostomy. In this process, a small hole is made on the surface of the brain at the place of shunt insertion, with the help of which the cerebrospinal fluid is removed and sent to a place where it can be absorbed in the body.
The ETV process does not suit everyone. But if the cerebrospinal fluid has accumulated due to some kind of blockage in the brain, this ETV process can be helpful. The flow of cerebrospinal fluid is made through a hole.
The chances of getting hydrocephalus can be reduced by taking some measures to avoid the conditions that cause this disease.
- All the birth defects and genetic abnormalities can be detected by examining the parents properly and tests like ultrasound etc. which can cause hydrocephalus.
- Protect your baby’s or child’s head from injury
- Use of safety equipment such as putting helmets on the head to prevent injury while riding the bike. The use of seat belts while driving can also reduce the risk of head injury.
- Taking proper treatment of any type of disease or infection etc. related to hydrocephalus also reduces the risk of getting this disorder.
- It is believed that taking folic acid in the first three months of pregnancy and before pregnancy also reduces the risk of hydrocephalus.
If the pressure in the brain is increased due to the formation of fluid in the brain, then long-term neurological complications may develop, which need to be treated as soon as possible to avoid the hydrocephalus.
Hydrocephalus can permanently damage the brain and can cause a variety of physical and mental problems. Also, if left untreated, it can be harmful to life.
Problems with hydrocephalus are often associated with the following conditions:
- Hearing ability
- Ability to see
- Weak attention
- Physical coordination problems
- Learning difficulty
- Epileptic seizures
- Light sensitivity
The average cost per patient for initial surgical management of hydrocephalus is Rs. 3,00,000 compared with for cases of shunt infection. Remember, the exact cost of treatment may vary with the treatment method your doctor chooses.
The 20 Best Government and Private Hospitals for Hydrocephalus or Jalshirsh treatment in India are:
1. AIIMS, Delhi
- Complete Address: Sri Aurobindo Marg, Ansari Nagar, Ansari Nagar East, New Delhi, Delhi 110029
- Phone Number: +91-11-26588500 / 26588700
- Number of Beds: 2,478 beds
- Website: www.aiims.edu
2. Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi
- Complete Address: Ansari Nagar East, near to AIIMS Metro Station, New Delhi, Delhi 110029.
- Phone Number: 011 2673 0000
- Number of Beds: 2900 beds
- Website: www.vmmc-sjh.nic.in
3. Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Delhi
- Complete Address: Baba Kharak Singh Rd, near Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Type III, Connaught Place, New Delhi, Delhi 110001
- Phone Number: 011 2340 4286
- Number of Beds: 1,420 Beds
- Website: rmlh.nic.in
4. Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, Delhi
- Complete Address: 1, Jawaharlal Nehru Marg, 64 Khamba, Raj Ghat, New Delhi, Delhi 110002
- Phone Number: 011 2323 4242
- Website: gbpant.delhigovt.nic.in
5. Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences (IHBAS) Hospital, Delhi
- Complete Address: Tahirpur Road, SDN Hospital Rd, Dilshad Garden, Delhi, 110095
- Phone Number: 011 2211 2136
- Website: www.ihbas.delhigovt.nic.in
6. Sai Baba Trust Hospital, Bangalore
- Complete Address: 63, SH 35, Vinayaka Layout, Whitefield, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560066
- Phone Number: 8411500
- Website: www.sathyasai.org
7. Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore (Tamil Nadu)
- Complete Address: IDA Scudder Rd, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004
- Phone Number: 0416 228 1000
- Website: www.cmch-vellore.edu
8. King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai
- Complete Address: Acharya Donde Marg, Parel East, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012
- Phone Number: 022 2410 7000
- Website: www.kem.edu
9. Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (Punjab)
- Complete Address: Madhya Marg, Sector 12, Chandigarh, 160012
- Phone Number: 0172 274 7585
- Website: pgimer.edu.in
10. National Institute of Medical Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (Karnataka)
- Complete Address: Hosur Road, Near Bangalore Milk Dairy, Bengaluru, Karnataka – 5600029
- Phone Number: 080 – 26995000
- Website: nimhans.ac.in
1. Medanta Hospital, Gurgaon
- Complete Address: CH Baktawar Singh Rd, near Olympus, Medicity, Islampur Colony, Sector 38, Gurugram, Haryana 122001
- Phone Number: 0124 414 1414
- Website: www.medanta.org
2. Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
- Complete Address: Sector 51, Gurugram, Haryana 122001
- Phone Number: 0124 451 1111
- Website: www.artemishospitals.com
3. Nanavati Super Specialty Hospital, Mumbai
- Complete Address: SV Rd, near LIC, LIC Colony, Suresh Colony, Vile Parle West, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400056
- Phone Number: 022 2626 7500
- Website: www.nanavatihospital.org
4. SRCC Children’s Hospital, Mumbai
- Complete Address: 1-1A, Keshavrao Khadye Marg, Haji Ali, Haji Ali Government Colony, Mahalakshmi, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400034
- Phone Number: 080675 06885
- Website: www.srcc.org.in
5. Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi
- Complete Address: Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Mathura Rd, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi, Delhi 110076
- Phone Number: 1860 500 1066
- Website: www.apollohospitals.com
6. Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai
- Complete Address: 15, Pedder Rd, IT Colony, Cumballa Hill, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400026
- Phone Number: 022 6657 3014
- Website: www.jaslokhospital.net
7. Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital
- Complete Address: Rao Saheb, Achutrao Patwardhan Marg, Four Bungalows, Andheri West, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400053
- Phone Number: 022 3069 6969
- Website: www.kokilabenhospital.com
8. Fortis Memorial Hospital, Gurgaon
- Complete Address: Sector – 44, Opposite HUDA City Centre, Gurugram, Haryana 122002
- Phone Number: 0124 716 2200
- Website: www.fmri.in
9. Max Hospital, New Delhi
- Complete Address: 1, 2, Press Enclave Marg, Saket Institutional Area, Saket, New Delhi, Delhi 110017
- Phone Number: 011 2651 5050
- Website: www.maxhealthcare.in
10. Apollo Hospital, Chennai
- Complete Address: 21 Greams Lane, Off, Greams Road, Thousand Lights West, Thousand Lights, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600006
- Phone Number: 044 2829 3333
- Website: chennai.apollohospitals.com