Geography, polity, society, culture, and economy are the constituents that have inspired both countries to adopt a close bilateral relationship. Wiese is also the constituent, which has provided a platform for various nuisances and constraints between the two countries. Both, deep-rooted, people to people, intimate closeness, and formal strategic relations have equal importance in India-Nepal relations. Despite the estrangements in size, population, resources, and economy various causes bring India and Nepal close to each other and also pull them apart. The article seeks to describe India’s policy towards Nepal. It identifies and analyses the dynamics, issues, and problems relating to India-Nepal relations.
Nepal and India experience outstanding two-sided bonds. Endowed on the age-old relationship of antiquity, culture, custom, and faith, these relations are close, comprehensive, and multidimensional and are proclaimed more in political, social, cultural, religious, and economic commitments with each other. To sum up the formal essence of such historic connections, the two nations established diplomatic relationships on 17 June 1947. The constant confinement to the principles of amicable concurrence, sovereign equity, and understanding of each other’s ambitions and responsiveness has been the firm foundation on which our respective connections have been progressing moreover.
Nepal’s overwhelming desire to nurture and cherish the warm and friendly relations with its neighbouring realms is revealed in its long-standing state of not allowing its region to be maltreated by any elements hostile to India and also anticipates the same class of mutuality and assurances from her. The open border between the two nations remains a bizarre feature of our relationships. Hinterland without confinement has considerably facilitated the free movements of our people to each other’s precinct and enhanced intercommunications.
Nepal-India connections are, in reality, considerably higher than the total of treaties and arrangements settled between the two lands. The usual high-level appointments by the officers of the two nations at various points of time and the actions comprise the hallmark of the relations between the two nations. Moreover, such appointments have improved to promote goodwill, trust, understanding, and cooperation between the two nations and, have inserted fresh drive to further strengthen age-old and multi-faceted mutual relations of friendship and collaboration on a more mature and pragmatic footing.
Nepal-India Economic Relationship
India has been a fundamental development companion in Nepal. The latter experienced strong guide and solidarity from the people and Government of India in developing its home-grown concord process as well as in the manner of writing the Constitution through the elected Constituent Assembly. Comprehending are the extensive earthquakes in Nepal in April and May 2015, India hastily offered to support hands. The Government of India has also been essentially preserving Nepal’s restoration efforts.
The Indian cooperation began in 1952 with the formation of an air-strip at Gaucharan. Since then, India has been serving essentially in the areas of base improvement and the potential development of human resources in Nepal. Such support received from India has helped strengthen the developmental efforts of Nepal. India’s economic support to Nepal has expanded manifold in the past few decades, especially since the refurbishment of multiparty self-government in Nepal in 1990. There are so many reasons that Chinese Propaganda will destroy Nepalese.
Long and Standard Projects initiated with India’s economic assistance
B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan; Emergency and Trauma Centre at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu; and Manmohan Memorial Polytechnic at Biratnagar are some of the flagship outlines performed and operationalized under the Indian support.
Interspersed check-posts have been introduced at four points on the Indo-Nepal boundary namely (i) Raxaul-Birganj, (completed and operationalized from April 2018) (ii) Sunauli-Bhairahawa, (iii) Jogbani-Biratnagar and (iv) Nepalganj Road-Nepalgunj. The development of ICP in Biratnagar is continuing, while thoughts are undertaken for Bhairahawa and Nepalgunj. Furthermore, as envisioned by the MoU for the formation of Terai roads under phase I, the manner of implementation has started. An MoU on Development of Railway Infrastructure at five spikes along the Nepal-India border was confirmed in 2010. The configuration process has been open-ended for Jayanagar-Janakpur-Bardibas-Bijalpura and Jogbani-Biratnagar divisions. For enduring three links, both parties have started introductory works. Besides, MoU on the substantiation of Nepal Bharat Maitri Polytechnic at Hetauda in Makawanpur District of Nepal was approved on 16 February 2010 in New Delhi. The design is being performed. In the International Conference on Nepal’s Rehabilitation held in Kathmandu in June 2015, the Government of India vouched for a fund of US$ 250 million endowments and US$750 million easy credits. Deals have promptly been signed for both donations and credits. A list of outlines has been recognized for the utilization of the donation while projects are being clinched for the use of Line of Credit. In addition to two former lines of credit (US$ 100 million and US$ 250 million), His Excellency Prime Minister of India Shri Modi proclaimed during his visit to Nepal in August 2014 another series of credit of US$ 1 billion to be employed to finance improvement projects chosen by Nepal. The Government of Nepal concluded the outlines. The modality of engaging these outlines is being moulded out.
Collaboration in Water Resources
Water support is acknowledged as the spine of the Nepali economics. The delivery of water sources has always been getting due influence on the schedule of bilateral cooperation between Nepal and India for a long time. Indicating to optimize the interests and address the difficulties, both Governments have set up three-tier mechanisms called Joint Ministerial Commission for Water Resources (JMCWR), Joint Committee on Water Resources (JCWR) and Joint Standing Technical Committee (JSTC) to execute agreements and treaties and also discuss water-induced intricacies of flood and torrent. There is also an additional tool – Joint Committee on Inundation and Flood Management (JCIFM) – which traffics explicitly with the issues of a deluge, embankments, and inundation forecasting.
An essential Power Trade Agreement was acknowledged between the two countries in 2014 including the way for the power developers of the two nations to trade power across the border without limitations. Private/public power developers from India have stretched agreements with the Investment Board of Nepal to develop two mega hydropower projects – Upper Karnali and Arun III.
Trade, Transit, and Investment
The connection with India in the sectors of trade and transit is a focus of maximum consequence to Nepal. India is Nepal’s most considerable trading companion. India has provided transition facility to Nepal for the third nation trade. Both the public and private quarters of India have funded Nepal. The trade statistics exhibit a remarkable improvement in the volume of bilateral trade over the years between the two countries. However, Nepal has an escalating trade debt with India. Nepal and India have decided on the bilateral Treaty of Transit, Treaty of Trade, and the Agreement of Cooperation to Control Unauthorized Trade.