Elitist theory

It is stated that various scholars who have emphasised upon the theory of the elitist model of democracy have emphasised upon the premise that in the world, there are different sections of the society. They can be divided into elites and non-elites. They have emphasised upon the assumption that it may be said that in a democracy, it is the people who hold power. Still, in actuality, it is the elites who are the power holders in any society.

They also said that elites are in the minority still they can rule over the non-elites who are in the majority. It is stated that scholars emphasise upon the premise that elites are those who have risen high in life and have shown their specialisation in the field they work in.

It is stated that these elites become a ruling class and control wealth, power, prestige in society and at the same time can exercise their influence over the government. Scholars like Vilfredo Pareto and Gaetano Mosca expressed their ideas about how they’re a real difference between those who rule and those who get ruled.

It is stated that Pareto, in his book ‘The Mind and Society’ emphasised upon the premise that exists a difference between individuals death leads to them being categorised as superior and inferior. In contrast, Mosca, in his book ‘the Ruling class’ emphasised upon the premise now where the non-elite sir animals for the elite section of the society. In contrast, Robert Michael, in his book ‘Iron Law theory’, emphasised upon the premise that in generality people is shy, timid, coward who doesn’t want to come to the forefront, thus look towards the leader to guide them as a result of which all they do is to elect their leaders from the elites, either way, choosing ones. Another prominent scholar, Joseph Schumpeter in his book ‘capitalism socialism and democracy’, have emphasised upon the premise that the political decisions are taken by the leaders and not by the people as a result of which we can say that democracy is not the government by the people instead it is the authority or mechanism through which leaders Express their will.

Pluralist theory of Democracy:

It is stated that democracy is said to be the government of the people. As a result of which one can say that essential purpose will be defeated in case, it leads to concentration of powers in the hands of a few as a result of which it is stated by the pluralist scholar that in a democracy power is not concentrated in the hands of few somewhat it is divided among different structures, groups and organisation.

It is stated that pluralist theory of democracy is a protest against the elitist theory of democracy and, it is realised that the pluralist scholars like Bentley, Raymond Aron and Robert Dahl, have emphasised upon the premise that in a democracy various organisations exercise their powers and it’s not just the government that runs the nation instead others have an impact of the working of the government.

It is stated that trade unions, pressure groups, opposition parties and other institutions affect the working of democracy; thus, we can say that it’s not the case of the minority ruling over the majority. Scholars have also emphasised upon the premise that pluralist democracy is a socio-political system in which the power of the state is shared with a large number of private groups, interest organisations, and individuals who are represented by such organisations, thus, according to the scholars ‘pluralism’ is a system in which political powers are fragmented among the branches of government. It is shared between the state and the private groups of individuals.

It is stated that pluralist democracy emphasises upon the premise that men are rational being and as a result of which are capable of exhibiting rational behaviour and as a result of which must be consulted by the government at the time of decision making. Scholars emphasise upon the premise that it is a human tendency to form associations and groups as a result of which it can be stated that human shall come together to examine the policies of the government. In case it is needed shall register their protest.

One can say that scholars supporting pluralist theory emphasising upon the premise that governments cannot take unilateral decisions as the politics of any nation gets influenced by the socioeconomic scenario of the country. It is clear that scholars like Robert Dahl emphasised his concept of ‘policy’. He is pointing towards multiple centres of power that still exists in the nation. Thus, governance becomes a collective effort of governments, organisations and individuals.