Have you ever experienced sudden mood swings? Being happy in one moment, sad in another, crying in another and angry in another moment is a common situation one has experiences in one life. But, when these experiences or mood swings interfere in the individual’s functioning and lead to self-harm, this becomes Disorder named Bipolar Mood Disorder.
This situation might seem very common in every person, but it can be turned into a disorder and can lead to various disastrous and damaging consequences.
The statistics provided by different census reports and mental health reports highlight that The prevalence of BPD worldwide estimates million people in 2017, where women have a higher rate than men. In India, reports showed that the current majority is 0.4-0.5%, but the rates are increasing rapidly.
We all came across these situations where our mood changes in a flick of seconds, making this common situation into a full-fledged Bipolar Mood disorder?
Frequent mood swings are prevalent, and these may cause a little shift in an individual’s behaviour, feelings and thoughts. For example, an individual may feel love towards a person when he/she is happy and joyful but suddenly, in just one moment, mood changes from being happy to angry. This type of change in mood can also impact one behaviour and feelings of love into hatred and disgust towards the other person. These regular mood swings do not limit the person from indulging in various pleasurable activities like working, studying, travelling, or meeting friends. These frequent mood swings do not push the person for indulging in self-harm, suicidal thoughts and tendencies, but Bipolar Mood Disorder can. It is also known as Maniac-depressive Disorder.
Bipolar mood disorder or Manic-depressive disorder is when both mania(a less common mood disorder where people become euphoric, active and overly talkative) and depression are alternately present. It highlights various changing moods in a flick of seconds, and sometimes, this pattern is disturbed by the periods of normal moods. It is a mental illness that can change perspective, thinking, energy, feelings, behaviour, emotions, and high and low attitudes. Among all the mood disorders, the lifetime risk of a suicide attempt is highest in the case of Bipolar Mood Disorder. Bipolar refers to two bars where the person switches. On one bar, the person is overly happy, joyful and filled up with contempt, and on the other bar, the person becomes too depressed, sad and crying along with some normal moods.
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Symptoms of bipolar mood disorder (read it to become aware, and it will help one to identify others suffering from this disorder):-
- Excessive happiness, joy, excitement and contempt
- Become euphoric, extremely active, insomnia.
- Substance abuse (drugs, alcohol, smoking, tobacco)
- Sudden changes in mood (extreme mood swings)
- High sexual drive
- Suicidal tendencies and thoughts
- Loss of interest in various pleasurable activities
- Loss of appetite
- Becoming unconfident and loss of self-esteem
- Feelings of hopelessness and worthless
Unlikely many disorders, this bipolar mood disorder can be identified and diagnosed by various test and observations. But what are the causes of this disorder? What are the factors predisposing this disorder?
Below mentioned are some factors that can cause bipolar mood disorder–
- High stress/traumatic event- Any event that caused trauma or extreme stress levels can cause mood swings and later turn into an extreme level of bipolar mood disorder. Traumatic events that can cause this disorder can be the death of a closed one, experiencing a natural disaster, or other traumatic events.
- Having a first-degree delative- This disorder can be highly caused when the individual’s parents or siblings have suffered from a bipolar mood disorder. Living with those can be an influential factor in causing this type of condition.
- Age- Teenagers and youngsters are very much at high risk for bipolar mood disorder and suicide. As they are going through many changes simultaneously including, bodily, physical, financial, career, personal relationship changes that can impact one’s mental health and turning regular mood swings into disastrous disorder.
- Substance abuse- Currently, alcohol and drugs have become the power of youngsters, and their lives revolve around these toxic substances. But, this disorder can cause a high level of problems, diseases and illnesses to the individual. Binge drinking, chain-smoking are predisposing factors for the person for this disorder.
- Certain health conditions can also be a factor in causing this disorder.
After being aware of all the information about this disorder, one should be mindful of his/her surroundings and identify individuals suffering from this disorder and help them to get it treated. As there are various treatments for this disorder, below are some of the prevalent therapies used to cure this disorder.
Treatment for Bipolar Mood Disorder (BMD):
It is difficult to treat bipolar mood disorder in a brief-term period. As it is a long-term condition that needs ongoing care, and this disorder does not happen in just a flick of a second thus, it needs full-fledged long-term care and various therapies. Various individuals can be treated in a short term period but depending upon their causes. If a person has experienced a traumatic event or indulges in substance abuse, this disorder can take way longer to treat.
1. Medications/drug Treatment
Drug Treatments and medicines help the person stabilize their condition, mood, balanced life, happiness, sorrow, and manage symptoms.
Professionals prescribe various combinations of drugs and drugs to treat this disorder-
- Mood stabilizers
- Various anticonvulsants to provide relief in mania to the individual
- Medication and medicines that help to calm down the person and help with sleep and anxiety
- Anti-anxiety medications or sleep medicines, such as sedatives. Professionals and doctors prescribe various therapies to see better results, and doctors can modify the quantity of the dose of the drug required to the person.
2) Psychotherapy and Counselling
It can help the individual relieve the symptoms and equip them to manage the situation better and indulge in effective daily life functioning.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy- help to learn to manage stress, converting the maladaptive practices into adaptive ones and helps the one to reduce bad habits.
- Psychoeducation- Teaching family members about the disorder and the individual condition can help him/her to get enough support to death with the current illness.
- Family-focused Therapy- This therapy helps the family understand the individual’s condition and provides love and support to the suffering individual during the episode of extreme bipolar moods.
- Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy- This therapy helps the individual build a routine of sleeping, Waking up, and various other activities that can help the mood be stable throughout.
Other factors that play a major role in the treatment and how to balance life can include:-
- Support From Friends and Family
- Manage Stress
- Indulging in Various Vocational and Recreational Activities